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Viruses

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Viruses are not cellular. Although they reproduce, they can only do so only by entering a host cell and making use of its machinery for replication. Viruses are bits of genetic material, apparently derived from their hosts. Thus, as Margulis & Schwartz (1988) put it, the polio and flu viruses are probably more closely related to people, and the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to tobacco, than polio and TMV are to each other.

The information below is mainly from the  National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy browser and the main object of presenting the classification is to put particular viruses such as HIV into the context of the overall diversity of viruses. 

  • Deltavirus (e.g. Hepatitis D virus)
  • dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage
    • Adenoviridae. e.g. Atadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Mastadenovirus
    • African swine fever-like viruses
    • Ascoviridae. e.g. ascovirus
    • Baculoviridae. e.g. Granulovirus, Nucleopolyhedrovirus
    • Corticoviridae. e.g. Corticovirus
    • Fuselloviridae. e.g. Fusellovirus
    • Herpesviridae
      • Alphaherpesvirinae
      • Betaherpesvirinae
      • Gammaherpesvirinae (lymphoproliferative virus group)
    • Iridoviridae. e.g. Iridovirus (small iridescent insect viruses), Lymphocystivirus, Ranavirus
    • Lipothrixviridae e.g. Lipothrixvirus
    • Papovaviridae e.g. Papillomavirus, Polyomavirus
    • Phycodnaviridae
    • Plasmaviridae
    • Polydnaviridae. e.g. Bracovirus, Ichnovirus
    • Poxviridae
      • Chordopoxvirinae
      • Entomopoxvirinae
    • Tailed phages
    • Myoviridae. Phages with contractile tails.
    • Podoviridae. Phages with short tails.
    • Siphoviridae. Phages with long non-contractile tails.
    • Tectiviridae
  • dsRNA viruses
    • Birnaviridae. e.g. Aquabirnavirus, Avibirnavirus, Birnavirus, Entomobirnavirus, Picobirnavirus
    • Cystoviridae
    • Hypoviridae
    • Partitiviridae. e.g. Alphacryptovirus, Partitivirus
    • Reoviridae. e.g. Aquareovirus, Coltivirus, Cypovirus (cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses), Fijivirus, Orbivirus, Orthoreovirus, Oryzavirus, Phytoreovirus (plant reovirus 1), Rotavirus
    • Totiviridae (monopartite dsRNA genome mycoviruses). e.g. Giardiavirus, Leishmaniavirus, Totivirus
  • Retroid viruses
    • Badnavirus e.g. banana streak virus, Cacao swollen shoot virus, Commelina yellow mottle virus, Dioscorea alata bacilliform virus, Sugarcane bacilliform virus)

    • Caulimovirus (e.g. Carnation etched ring virus, Cauliflower mosaic virus, Figwort mosaic virus, Peanut chlorotic streak virus, petunia vein clearing virus, Soybean chlorotic mottle virus, Strawberry vein banding virus)

    • Hepadnaviridae (hepatitis B-type viruses)
    • Avihepadnavirus (avian hepatitis B-type viruses)
    • Orthohepadnavirus (mammalian hepatitis B-type viruses)
    • Retroviridae
      • Avian type C retroviruses
      • BLV-HTLV retroviruses
      • Intracisternal A-particles
      • Lentivirus (includes HIV)

      • Mammalian type B retroviruses
      • Mammalian type C retroviruses
      • Spumavirus

      • Type D retroviruses
  • Satellites (e.g. Satellite cucumber mosaic virus, Satellite tobacco mosaic virus, Tomato leaf curl virus satellite)
  • ssDNA viruses
    • Circoviridae
    • Geminiviridae. e.g. Begomovirus, Curtovirus, Mastrevirus. Mastrevirus species infect mainly grasses and are obligatively transmitted by leafhoppers insects (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). An example is the Maize Streak Virus.
    • Inoviridae. e.g. Inovirus, Plectrovirus
    • Microviridae (isometric ssDNA phages). e.g. Chlamydiamicrovirus, Microvirus, Spiromicrovirus
    • Nanovirus. e.g. Coconut foliar decay virus, Subterranean clover stunt virus
    • Parvoviridae (e.g. Densovirinae, Parvovirinae)
  • ssRNA negative-strand viruses
    • Arenaviridae
    • Bunyaviridae. e.g. Bunyavirus, Hantavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus, Tospovirus
    • Mononegavirales (negative-sense genome single-stranded RNA viruses)
    • Borna disease virus
    • Filoviridae
    • Paramyxoviridae
    • Rhabdoviridae
    • Ophiovirus. e.g. citrus ringspot virus.

    • Orthomyxoviridae (e.g. Influenza virus, Thogoto-like viruses)
    • Tenuivirus.  e.g. maize stripe virus, rice grassy stunt virus, rice hoja blanca virus, rice stripe virus

  • ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage
    • Astroviridae. e.g. Astrovirus, Avian nephritis virus.
    • Barnaviridae
    • Bromoviridae. e.g. Alfamovirus, Bromovirus, Cucumovirus, Ilarvirus
    • Caliciviridae. e.g. Calicivirus, Lagovirus
    • Capillovirus. e.g. Apple stem grooving virus, Cherry capillovirus, Citrus tatter leaf virus
    • Carlavirus. e.g. apple stem pitting virus, blueberry scorch virus, Poplar mosaic virus, Potato viruses
    • Closteroviridae. e.g. Closterovirus, Crinivirus
    • Comoviridae. e.g. Comovirus, Fabavirus, Nepovirus
    • Dianthovirus. e.g. Carnation ringspot virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus

    • Flaviviridae. e.g. Flavivirus (arboviruses group B), Hepatitis C-like viruses, Pestivirus
    • Furovirus. e.g. broad bean necrosis virus, Potato mop-top virus, soil-borne wheat mosaic virus

    • Hordeivirus. e.g. Barley stripe mosaic virus

    • Idaeovirus. e.g. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus

    • Leviviridae. e.g. Allolevivirus, Levivirus
    • Luteoviridae. e.g. Enamovirus, Luteovirus, Polerovirus
    • Machlomovirus. e.g. Maize chlorotic mottle virus

    • Marafivirus. e.g. maize rayado fino virus, oat blue dwarf virus, Poinsettia mosaic virus

    • Necrovirus. e.g. leek white stripe virus, Tobacco necrosis virus

    • Nidovirales
    • Arteriviridae
    • Coronaviridae
    • Nodaviridae
    • Pecluvirus. e.g. Peanut clump virus

    • Picornaviridae. e.g. Enterovirus, Hepatovirus, Rhinovirus (common cold viruses), Teschovirus. Includes Aphthovirus which is the cause of foot-and-mouth disease
    • Potexvirus. e.g. Bamboo mosaic virus, Cassava common mosaic virus, Clover yellow mosaic virus

    • Potyviridae. e.g. Narcissus latent virus, Potyvirus, Rymovirus, Wheat streak mosaic virus
    • Sequiviridae. e.g. Sequivirus, Waikavirus
    • Sobemovirus. e.g. Lucerne transient streak virus, Rice yellow mottle virus, Subterranean clover mottle virus

    • Tetraviridae. e.g. Betatetravirus, Omegatetravirus
    • Tobamovirus. e.g. Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, frangipani mosaic virus,  Tobacco mosaic virus

    • Tobravirus. e.g. Pea early browning virus, Pepper ringspot virus, Tobacco rattle virus

    • Togaviridae. e.g. Alphavirus (arboviruses group A), Rubivirus
    • Tombusviridae. e.g. Carmovirus, Panicum mosaic virus, Tombusvirus
    • Trichovirus. e.g. Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Grapevine viruses

    • Tymovirus. e.g. Cacao yellow mosaic virus, Eggplant mosaic virus, Turnip yellow mosaic virus
    • Umbravirus. e.g. carrot mottle mimic virus, groundnut rosette virus

Links

References

Text by Hamish Robertson  


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