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Family: Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon, Foxglove family)

[= Myoporaceae]

Life > eukaryotes > Archaeoplastida > Chloroplastida > Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants) > Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants) > Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering plants) > Eudicotyledons > Core Eudicots > Asterids > Euasterid I > Order: Lamiales

There are about 65 genera and 1700 species (cosmopolitan) of which 47 genera and 825 species are native to southern Africa. There are also an additional two genera and three species naturalised and an additional three genera and 23 species cultivated in this region. From recent work on this family and related families, a large number of genera have been moved to other families in the Lamiales (mainly Plantaginaceae, Orobanchaceae and to a lesser extent Stilbaceae).

Genera native to southern Africa

List from Smithies (2000) and Victor (2000), with guidance from Angiosperm Phylogeny Website as to which genera to include in Scrophulariaceae and which to move to other families.

Alonsoa

A total of 16 species, most of them occurring in South America. Two species are native to southern Africa and are pollinated by oil-collecting bees. In addition, there are two species from South America that are cultivated in southern Africa.

 

Antherothamnus

One species, Antherothamnus pearsonii, native to the northern regions of southern Africa.

 

Anticharis

About 10 species, native mainly to Africa but also occurring from the Arabian Peninsula to India. Six species are native to southern Africa.

 

Aptosimum

About 40 species, native to Africa, with 20 species occurring in southern Africa.

Buddleja (Buddleia, Sagewood genus)

About 100 species (Africa, Asia and America), with 10 species native to southern Africa. A further seven species are cultivated as garden plants in this region. Buddleja was previously placed in the Buddlejaceae, which has now been synonymised with Scrophulariaceae.

Buddleja salviifolia

Camptoloma

Three species, native to the Canary Islands, Arabian Peninsula and Africa, with one species, Camptoloma rotundifolium, native to southern Africa.  

 

Chaenostoma

Forty-four species native to southern Africa.

 

Chamaecrypta

One species, Chamaegigas intrepidus, native to Namibia where it grows in ephemeral rock pools.

 

Chamaegigas

One species, Chamaegigas intrepidus, native to Namibia where it grows in ephemeral rock pools.

 

Chenopodiopsis

The three species are endemic to the Northern Cape and Western Cape.

 

Colpias

One species, Colpias mollis, endemic to the Northern Cape. Pollinated by oil-collecting bees (Rediviva).

 

Craterostigma

About nine species, native to Arabian Peninsula, Socotra, India, Madagascar and Africa. Five species occur in southern Africa.

 

Cromidon

Twelve species, endemic to southern Africa (mainly Western and Northern Cape).

 

Dermatobotrys

One species, Dermatobotrys saundersii, occurring in KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape, epiphytic on forest trees.

 

Diascia

Sixty-two species native to southern Africa. Many species are pollinated by oil-collecting bees (Rediviva).

 

Diclis

About 10 species, native to Africa and Madagascar, with about seven species in southern Africa.

 

Dischisma

Eleven species, native to Namibia and coastal regions of Western and Eastern Cape.

 

Freylinia

Nine species, all occurring in southern Africa. 

Freylinia lanceolata (Honey-bell bush)

Glekia

One species, Glekia krebsiana, endemic to Lesotho and Eastern Cape.

 

Globulariopsis

The seven species are endemic to Western Cape.

 

Glumicalyx

Six species, endemic to Lesotho and regions of South Africa bordering on Lesotho.

 

Gomphostigma

Two species, native to Africa, with both species extending into southern Africa. Previoiusly placed in the Buddlejaceae, which has been syonymised with Scrophulariaceae.

Gosela

One species, Gosela eckloniana, endemic to the Western Cape.

 

Hebenstretia

All 24 species are native to southern Africa but a few have distributions extending further north.

Hebenstretia sp.

Hemimeris

About four species, endemic to Northern, Western and Eastern Cape.

 

Jamesbrittenia

Eighty-three species native to southern Africa.

Jamesbrittenia microphylla

Lyperia

Six species, native to Namibia, Northern Cape and Western Cape.

 

Manulea

Of the 74 species, 73 are native to southern Africa and one to India. 

 

Manuleopsis

One species, Manuleopsis dinteri, endemic to Namibia.

 

Melanospermum

Six species, endemic to southern Africa.

 

Microdon

Eight species, endemic to Northern Cape and Western Cape. 

 

Nemesia

About 65 species, native to Africa, with 64 species native to southern Africa, mostly occurring in the Western Cape.

Nemesia sp.

Oftia

Three species, endemic to southern Africa.

 

Peliostomum

About five species, native to Africa, mainly southern Africa.

 

Phygelius

Two species, endemic to southern Africa.

 

Phyllopodium

A total of 26 species, endemic to southern Africa.

 

Polycarena

A total of 17 species, endemic to southern Africa.

 

Pseudoselago

A total of 27 species, endemic to southern Africa, mainly in the Western Cape.

 

Reyemia

Two species, endemic to the Western Cape.

 

Selago

About 190 species, native to Africa, of which 181 species occur in southern Africa.

 

Stemodiopsis

Five species, native to Africa, three of which occur in southern Africa.

 

Strobilopsis

One species, Strobilopsis wrightii, native to Lesotho and KwaZulu-Natal.

 

Sutera

Six species native to southern Africa.

 

Teedia

The two species are native to tropical and southern Africa, with both occurring in southern Africa.

 

Tetraselago

Four species, endemic to southern Africa.

 

Trieenea

Ten species, endemic to the Western and Eastern Cape. 

 

Zaluzianskya

The 55 species are native to tropical and southern Africa, with 54 species in southern Africa, mainly Western Cape.

 
 

Genera naturalised in southern Africa

List from Smithies (2000).

Myoporum

Myoporum tenuifolium has become naturalised along the southern Cape coast. An additional four species are cultivated in southern Africa. Myoporum was previously placed in the Myoporaceae, which is now synonymised with Scrophulariaceae.

Verbascum

[= Celsia]

About 360 species, native mainly to the northern temperate regions of the Old World. Verbascum blattaria and Verbascum virgatum are garden escapes in southern Africa. In addition, there are five other exotic species (including two previously placed in Celsia) cultivated in southern Africa.

 

Other genera, cultivated in southern Africa

List from Glen (2002). The species name is provided in genera that have only one species cultivated in southern Africa. Many genera in Glen's list of Scrophulariaceae are now in other families in the Lamiales.

Bontia daphnoides

Native to the Caribbean. Previously Bontia was placed in the Myoporaceae, which is now synonymised with Scrophulariaceae.

 

Eremophila debilis

Native to eastern Australia and New Zealand. Previously Eremophila was placed in the Myoporaceae, which is now synonymised with Scrophulariaceae.

 

Scrophularia

Three species cultivated.

 

Publications

  • Glen, H.F. 2002. Cultivated Plants of Southern Africa. Jacana, Johannesburg.

  • Smithies, S.J. 2000. Scrophulariaceae. In: Seed Plants of Southern Africa (ed. O.A. Leistner). Strelitzia 10: 508-537. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

  • Victor, J.E. 2000. Buddlejaceae. In: Seed Plants of Southern Africa (ed. O.A. Leistner). Strelitzia 10: 195-196. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

  • Welman, W.G. 2000. Myoporaceae. In: Seed Plants of Southern Africa (ed. O.A. Leistner). Strelitzia 10: 417. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

  • Welman, W.G. 2003. Myoporaceae. In Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds), Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 745. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. 

 

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