(Needlebush, Silky hakea)
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Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants)
> Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants)
> Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering
plants) > Eudicotyledons > Order: Proteales
> Family: Proteaceae > Genus: Hakea
Hakea sericea, Tsitsikamma National Park,
Eastern Cape, South Africa. [photo
Robertson, Iziko ©]
The invasive alien Hakea sericea flowering in
winter in fynbos in the Cape Peninsula mountains, Western Cape, South
The invasive alien Hakea sericea flowering
in fynbos in the Franschhoek Mountains, with a pine plantation and an
escaped pine tree beyond, Western Cape, South Africa. [photo
Hakea sericea is a woody shrub or small tree
that grows to 3-5 m in height. It is native to souteastern Australia
and invasive in fynbos regions of the Western and Eastern Cape in
Chronology of hakea control in South Africa
First record of Hakea sericea in the Cape, where it was recorded from
||Hakea sericea recorded from Bathurst in the
Eastern Cape where is was already well known.
||Proclaimed a noxious weed in terms of the Weed Act.
||Biological control of hakea proposed by F.J. Simmonds of
the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control
||Conference on hakea held in Stellenbosch where an
interdisciplinary committee was formed to propose methods for controlling
this weed. Biological control was considered at the conference as a possible
||Biological control programme initiated for control of
hakea in South Africa: D. van V. Webb sent to Australia to investigate
insect species that feed on hakea and which might be suitable for
importation as biological control agents.
||A biological control laboratory is set up in
||Stocks of biological control insects brought in from
||First release of seed-feeding weevil Erytenna consputa
in Southwestern Cape. These particular weevils had been collected from
Wilson's Promontory in Australia and performed poorly, possibly because of
||First releases of the moth Carposina autologa at
Wemmershoek in the Western Cape.
||About 8000 Erytenna consputa weevils imported from
Victoria and New South Wales. This weevil became established at a large
number of sites in the southwestern and southern Cape.
|1976 - 1979
||19 376 ha of infested fynbos in the South-Western Cape
cleared of hakea using the 'fell-and-burn' method.
|1977 - 1983
||More than 3000 Cydmaea binotata weevils imported
|1978 - 1982
||Main period during which eggs of the moth Carposina
autologa were imported from Australia into South Africa for the
biocontrol of hakea.
|1980 - 1984
||Cydmaea binotata weevils at over 36 sites in the
Western Cape and Eastern Cape but only became established at four sites.
||480 000 ha infested in what is now known as the Western
Cape and Eastern Cape, South Africa, amounting to about 14% of the remaining
||Erytenna consputa weevils collected at established
sites and re-distributed to other areas thus increasing the spread of this