Back to Biodiversity Explorer main pageGo to Iziko Museums of Cape Town home pageAbout Biodiversity Explorer - history, goals, etc.Send us your questions about southern African biodiversityPeople who have contributed content and images.Search Biodiversity Explorer

Family: Orobanchaceae

Life > eukaryotes > Archaeoplastida > Chloroplastida > Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants) > Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants) > Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering plants) > Eudicotyledons > Core Eudicots > Asterids > Euasterid I > Order: Lamiales

There are 99 genera and 2061 species (nearly worldwide), with 15 genera and 113 species native to southern Africa. There is an additional one genus and two species naturalised, and an additional three genera and three species cultivated in southern Africa. Members of the Orobanchaceae were previously included under the Scrophulariaceae.

The Orobanchaceae was created to hold some parasitic genera from the Scrophulariaceae (e.g. Harveya and Orobanche) but with recent studies on the Scrophulariaceae and related families, many genera have been transferred from Scrophulariaceae to the Orobanchaceae (see Angiosperm Phylogeny Website for summary and details of these recent studies).

Genera native to southern Africa

Information from Smithies (2000) and Smithies and Ready (2003).

Alectra

About 40 species, native to Asia and Africa, with about 21 species native to southern Africa.

 

Bartsia

The 49 species, native mainly to South America, but also in Europe, Asia, North America and Africa. One species, Bartsia trixago, in southern Africa, possibly introduced. 

 

Buchnera

About 100 species, mainly occurring in the Old World tropics and subtropics, with 27 species native to southern Africa. 
 

Buttonia

Three species, native to tropical and southern Africa, two of which are native to southern Africa.

 

Cycnium

A total of 15 species, native from East Africa to southern Africa, with four species native to southern Africa.

 

Gerardiina

One species, Gerardiina angolensis, native to tropical and southern Africa.

 

Graderia

Five species, native to Africa and Socotra, with three species native to southern Africa.

 

Harveya

About 40 species, native to Africa and the Mascarene Islands, with about 25 species in southern Africa.

 

Hiernia

One species, Hiernia angolensis, native to Angola and Namibia.

 

Hyobanche

About seven species, endemic to southern Africa.

 

Melasma

Five species, native to Africa and America, with two species, Melasma calcyinum (recorded from Zimbabwe) and Melasma scabrum, native to southern Africa.

 

Micrargeria

One species native to southern Africa - Micrargeria filiformis (recorded from Zimbabwe). See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Rhamphicarpa

Six species, native mainly to Africa, but also India and Australia. Two species are native to southern Africa.

 

Sopubia

About 35-30 species, native to Asia and Africa, with seven species in southern Africa.

 

Striga

About 40 species, native to Africa, Asia and Australia, with about nine species in southern Africa. 

 

Genera naturalised in southern Africa

Information from Smithies (2000).

Orobanche

About 150 species, widely distributed. Two species, Orobanche ramosa and Orobanche minor (Lesser broomrape, Clover broomrape, Klawerbesemraap, Bremraap) (see Flora of Zimbabwe), are introduced weeds in southern Africa. The latter species is a declared Category 1 invasive plant in South Africa.

 

Other genera, cultivated in southern Africa

Information from Glen (2002).

Castilleja miniata (Scarlet paintbrush)

Native to western USA. 

 

Pedicularis

One unknown species cultivated in southern Africa.

 

Rehmannia

There are about six species, native to China and Korea. One species, Rehmannia elata, is cultivated in southern Africa.

 

Publications

  • Smithies, S.J. 2000. Scrophulariaceae. In: Seed Plants of Southern Africa (ed. O.A. Leistner). Strelitzia 10: 508-537. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

  • Smithies, S.J. and Ready, J.A. 2003. Orobanchaceae. In Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds), Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 755-762. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

     

Contact us if you can contribute information or images to improve this page.

Biodiversity Explorer home   Iziko home   Search