Oenothera biennis (Evening
> eukaryotes >
Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants)
> Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants)
> Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering
plants) > Eudicotyledons > Core Eudicots > Rosids >
Eurosid II > Order: Myrtales > Family: Onagraceae
> Genus: Oenothera
Distribution and habitat
Native to western USA and Canada. Naturalised in southern
Produces seeds mainly through self-pollination (Johnson and
Agrawal 2005) but seeds can also be produced through pollination of the flowers
by a variety of insects.
Hawkmoths, such as
Agrius convolvuli, are major pollinators (Kawaano et al. 2005). A
monoterpene called linalool is the main constituent of the volatile chemicals
given off by the flower in the evening for attracting pollinators. In addition,
there are visual signals, with a strong UV-absorbent spot in the centre of the
corolla (Kawaano et al. 2005).
- Johnson MTJ, Agrawal AA. 2005. Plant genotype and environment interact
to shape a diverse arthropod community on evening primrose (Oenothera
biennis). Ecology 86(4): 874-885.
- Kawaano S, Odaki M, Yamaoka R, Odatanabe M, Takeuchi M, Kawano N. 2005.
Pollination biology of Oenothera (Onagraceae). The interplay between
floral UV-absorbancy patterns and floral volatiles as signals to nocturnal
insects. Plant Species Biology 10(1): 31-38.