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Tribe: Lactuceae

Life > eukaryotes > Archaeoplastida > Chloroplastida > Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants) > Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants) > Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering plants) > Eudicotyledons > Core Eudicots > Asterids > Euasterid II > Family: Asteraceae

Four genera and 17 species are native to southern Africa, with 10 genera and 36 species naturalised and four genera and nine species cultivated in the region.

Genera native to southern Africa

(based on Herman et al. 2000)

Lactuca

About 100, cosmopolitan. Three species are native to southern Africa and two species naturalised. In addition, Lettuce Lactuca sativa is cultivated in the region.

 

Launaea

About 30 species, native to the Canary Islands, Mediterranean region, East Asia, Africa and Madagascar. There are five species native to southern Africa.

 

Sonchus

About 60 species, native to Eurasia and tropical Africa. There are eight species native to southern Africa and three species naturalised.

Tolpis

The 20 species are native to Macronesia, the Mediterranean region, and Africa. Tolpis capensis is the only species native to southern Africa. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Genera naturalised in southern Africa

(based on Herman et al. 2000)

Cichorium

The eight species are native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and Ethiopia. Four species are cultivated in southern Africa but Cichorium intybus (Chicory) is also found as an escape in natural areas near where it is cultivated.

 

Crepis

The 200 species are found in the northern Hemisphere and tropical Africa. Two species have been introduced to southern Africa: Crepis capillaris and Crepis hypochaeridea, with another species cultivated in the region.

 

Hedypnois

The native distribution of the 3 species is from Macronesia through to the Mediterranean. Hedypnois cretica has been introduced to southern Africa and become naturalised.

 

Leontodon

About 50 species, distributed in Eurasia. Leontodon taraxacoides has become naturalised in Zimbabwe.

 

Hypochaeris

About 50 species, native to Europe, Asia, North Africa and South America. Four species have been introduced and become established in southern Africa.

 

Picris

There are 45 species, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region, Asia and the mountains of Africa. Picris echioides and Picris hierachioides have become established as weeds in southern Africa.

 

Taraxacum

About 60 species, native to north temperate regions and temperate South America. There are 15 species that have become established in southern Africa.

Tragopogon

About 50 species, native to temperate Eurasia and the Mediterranean region. Three species are introduced weeds in southern Africa, associated with cultivation.

 

Urospermum

The two species are endemic to the Mediterranean region. One of them, Urospermum picroides, is an introduced weed in southern Africa.

 

Youngia

About 30 species, native to Asia. Youngia japonica is an introduced weed in southern Africa.

 

Other genera, cultivated in southern Africa

List from Glen (2002). The species name is provided in genera that have only one species represented in southern Africa.  

Andryala cheiranthifolia

Native to Madeira.

 

Hieracium spilophaeum

Native from Ireland to Romania.

 

Reichardia ligulata

Native to the Canary Isles.

 

Scorzonera hispanica (Scorzonera, Spanish salsify)

Native from Spain to Russia.

 

Publications

  • Herman, P.P.J., Retief, E., Koekemoer, M. & Welman, W.G. 2000. Asteraceae (Compositae). In: Seed Plants of Southern Africa (ed. O.A. Leistner). Strelitzia 10: 101-170. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

 

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