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Tribe: Heliantheae

Life > eukaryotes > Archaeoplastida > Chloroplastida > Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants) > Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants) > Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering plants) > Eudicotyledons > Core Eudicots > Asterids > Euasterid II > Family: Asteraceae

Seven genera and fourteen species are native to southern Africa, with nineteen genera and 41 species naturalised and an additional five genera and 22 species cultivated.

Genera native to southern Africa

(based on Herman et al. 2000)

Aspilia

About 60 species, found in America, Africa and Madagascar with five species native to southern Africa and one species cultivated.

 

Athroisma

One species native to southern Africa - Athroisma stuhlmannii (recorded from Zimbabwe).

 

Bidens

There are 233 species found around the world. Four species are native to southern Africa, three species are naturalised weeds and additional three species are cultivated in the region.  

Blainvillea

The 10 species are found in the tropics. Blainvillea gayana is the only species in southern Africa. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Enydra

The 10 species have a pantropical native distribution with one of them, Enydra fluctuans, native to KwaZulu-Natal. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Sclerocarpus

The eight species are native to Central America, Mexico and Africa, with one species, Sclerocarpus africanus, found in southern Africa (northern parts of Namibia and Botswana). See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Spilanthes

The six species have a pantropical distribution, with one native species and another naturalised species southern Africa.

 

Genera naturalised in southern Africa

(based on Herman et al. 2000)

Acanthospermum

The six species are native to Central and South America. Three species have become naturalised in southern Africa.

 

Ambrosia

The 43 species are native to North and South America. Four are naturalised in southern Africa.

 

Chrysanthellum

The 13 species are native to Mexico, Central America, West Indies and Galapagos Islands. Chrysanthellum indicum is an introduced weed in southern Africa.

 

Coreopsis

About 114 species, found in North and South America and in Africa. Two species are naturalised in southern Africa and another two species are cultivated in the region.

 

Cosmos

The 26 species are native to tropical and warm regions of America. Three species have become weeds in southern Africa.

 

Eclipta

There are four species, found in the tropics. One of these, Eclipta prostrata, is a cosmopolitan weed that has become well established in southern Africa. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Galinsoga

The 13 species are native to the Americas. Three species are introduced weeds in southern Africa.

 

Guizotia

The six species are native to tropical Africa. Guizotia abyssinica and Guizota scabra (recorded from Zimbabwe and Mozambique, see Flora of Zimbabwe) have been introduced to southern Africa and have become naturalised.

 

Helianthus

The 50 species are native to North America. Three of them are occasional escapes in southern Africa and another three species are cultivated in southern Africa.  

 

Melanthera

The 20 species are native to the USA, Central America, the West Indies and tropical Africa. Four species have been introduced to southern Africa and become naturalised and an additional species is cultivated in the region.

 

Montanoa

The 25 species are native to North, Central and South America. Montana bipinnatifida and Montanoa hibiscifolia (see Flora of Zimbabwe) have become naturalised along the east coast of southern Africa.

 

Parthenium

The 16 species are native to the Americas. Parthenium hysterophorus (Parthenium) (see Flora of Zimbabwe) is a widespread weed that has become established in southern Africa and in South Africa is a declared Category 1 invasive plant. In addition, Parthenium argentatum (Guayule) is cultivated in the region.

 

Sigesbeckia

The three species are native to tropical Africa and Asia. Sigesbeckia orientalis has been introduced to southern Africa where it has become established in forest areas.

 

Sphagneticola

The four species are native to tropical America. Sphagneticola trilobata (see Flora of Zimbabwe) has been introduced to southern Africa as a cultivated ground cover and has become naturalised in KwaZulu-Natal. It is a declared Category 1 invasive plant in Kwa-Zulu Natal, a Category 3 invasive plant in the rest of South Africa.

 

Tithonia

There are 11 species, native to North and Central America. Tithonia diversifolia and Tithonia rotundifolia have become naturalised in southern Africa.

 

Tridax

About 30 species, native to Central and South America. Tridax procumbens is a pantropical weed that has become established in southern Africa. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Verbesina

About 300 species, native to the Americas. Verbesina encelioides is an introduced weed in southern Africa (see Flora of Zimbabwe). In addition, Verbesina virginica is cultivated in the region. 

 

Xanthium

The three species are widespread weeds in the warmer regions of the world. Two of them, Xanthium spinosum and Xanthium strumarium are declared Category 1 invasive plants in South Africa.

 

Zinnia

The 22 species are native to the Americas. Zinnia peruviana is an introduced weed in southern Africa, while there are there are three additional species cultivated in the region.

Other genera, cultivated in southern Africa

List from Glen (2002). The species name is provided in genera that have only one species represented in southern Africa.  

Calea urticifolia

Native from Mexico to Panama.

 

Dracopsis amplexicaulus

Native to the USA.

 

Echinacea

Two species cultivated.

 

Lasthenia coronaria

[= Actinolepis coronaria]

Native to California, USA.

 

Rudbeckia

Two species cultivated.

 

Publications

  • Herman, P.P.J., Retief, E., Koekemoer, M. & Welman, W.G. 2000. Asteraceae (Compositae). In: Seed Plants of Southern Africa (ed. O.A. Leistner). Strelitzia 10: 101-170. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

  • Karis, P.O. & Ryding, O. 1994. Tribes Helenieae and Heliantheae. In: Asteraceae, Cladistics & Classification (ed. K. Bremer). Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, pp. 521-624.

 

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