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Tribe: Cynareae

[= Cardueae]

Life > eukaryotes > Archaeoplastida > Chloroplastida > Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants) > Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants) > Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering plants) > Eudicotyledons > Family: Asteraceae

Six genera and 30 species have become naturalised in southern Africa, with an additional seven genera and 17 species cultivated.

Genera naturalised in southern Africa

(based on Herman et al. 2000)

Carduus (thistles)

The 91 species are native to Eurasia, the Mediterranean region and East Africa. Carduus tenuiflorus and Carduus macrocephalus are introduced weeds in southern Africa.

 

Carthamus

The 14 species are found in the Mediterranean region and Asia. Carthamus lanatus has become naturalised in South Africa and Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) is cultivated on a small scale in this region as an oilseed crop.

 

Centaurea

About 450 species, found mainly in the Mediterranean region and the Near East. Five species have been introduced to southern Africa and are regarded as weeds. An additional six species are cultivated in the region.

Cirsium

About 250 species, found in temperate regions of Europe and America. Two species have become established in southern Africa.

 

Mantisalca

The four species are native to the Mediterranean region. Mantisalca salmantica is an introduced weed in southern Africa.

 

Silybum

The two species are native to the Mediterranean region and one of them, Silybum marianum (Holy thistle, Milk thistle), is an introduced weed in the Western and Eastern Cape.

 

Other genera, cultivated in southern Africa

List from Glen (2002).

Arctium

Two species cultivated.

 

Centaurothamnus maximus

Native to Arabia.

 

Cnicus benedictus (Blessed thistle)

Native to the Mediterranean.

 

Cynara (Globe Artichoke and Cardoon)

The 91 species are native to Eurasia, the Mediterranean region and East Africa. Carduus tenuiflorus and Carduus macrocephalus are introduced weeds in southern Africa.

 

Echinops

Two species cultivated.

 

Onopordum acanthum (Cotton thistle)

Native from Europe to central Asia.

 

Ptilostemon casabonae

Native to Italy and France.

 

Publications

  • Herman, P.P.J., Retief, E., Koekemoer, M. & Welman, W.G. 2000. Asteraceae (Compositae). In: Seed Plants of Southern Africa (ed. O.A. Leistner). Strelitzia 10: 101-170. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

  

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