> eukaryotes >
Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants)
> Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants)
> Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering
> Eudicotyledons > Core Eudicots > Asterids
> Euasterid II > Order:
Asterales > Family: Asteraceae > Tribe: Lactuceae
> Genus: Cichorium
The leaves of Endive has been used in salads since at
least Greek and Roman times. It is similar to Chicory Cichorium intybus but
is annual rather than perennial and whereas the leaves of Chicory are usually
hairy, those of Endive are hairless.
There are 3 theories about its origins:
that it originates from Southern Asia and northern
that it originates in the eastern Mediterranean as a
hybrid between chicory and the wild annual species Cichorium pumilum;
that it is a cultivated form of Cichorium pumilum,
now regarded as a full species.
There are two main varieties of Endive:
var. latifolium (escarole or
broadleaf endive). Leaves are broad and slightly toothed.
var. crispum (curly endive). Leaves
are dissected and ornate.
However, there is also Belgium endive (called
witloof in Belgium and blue sailor in the USA), which is in
fact a variety of chicory (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum).
The common names Chicory and Endive are used in the
reverse by the French:
||Endive (referring to the shoots)
Escarole (French in origin but now used
mainly in English to refer to the broad-leaved variety)
|Chicorée frisée (for cut
Scarole (for broad-leaved variety)
Endive is not commonly eaten in southern Africa.
Phillips, R. & Rix, M. 1993. Vegetables.
Pan Books, London.
van Wyk, B.-E. 2005. Food Plants of the World -
Identification, Culinary Uses and Nutritional Value. Briza, Pretoria.