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Order: Lamiales 

Life > eukaryotes > Archaeoplastida > Chloroplastida > Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants) > Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants) > Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering plants) > Eudicotyledons > Core Eudicots > Asterids > Euasterid I

There are 24 families of which 17 occur in southern Africa. Worldwide, there are 1059 genera and 23810 species, of which 205 genera and 1976 species are native to southern Africa, 22 genera and 65 species are naturalised and 126 genera and 432 species are cultivated in the region. 

The Lamiales is defined mainly on the basis of genetic and biochemical information. Flowers of most species have only one plane of symmetry (ie. monosymmetric) and plants are usually herbaceous. Evidence suggests that this order evolved about 97 to 74 million years ago. (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, Version 12).

Families encountered in southern Africa

Note: Buddlejaceae and Myoporaceae have been synonymised with Scrophulariaceae.

Acanthaceae (Black-eyed Susan family)

There are about 350 genera and 4350 species worldwide (mainly in the tropics and subtropics), with 49 genera and 424 species in southern Africa, one genus and species is naturalised, and a further 15 genera and 55 species cultivated in the region.

Barleria obtusa

Bignoniaceae (jacaranda family)

Worldwide, there are about 750 species and 109 genera in the family Bignoniaceae, with 10 genera and 16 species native to southern Africa, three genera and four species naturalised and an additional 25 genera and 60 species cultivated in the region.

Tecoma capensis

Calceolariaceae

Two genera and 260 species (South and Central America, New Zealand). About three species in the genus Calceolaria are cultivated in southern Africa. Members of this family were previously included under the Scrophulariaceae.

 

Gesneriaceae (African violet family)

About 147 genera and 3200 species, found patchily worldwide but mainly in the Old World (especially China). One genus and 63 species are native to southern Africa (Streptocarpus), with an additional 12 genera and 22 species cultivated in the region.

Streptocarpus rexii

Lamiaceae - Labiatae (mint, lavender, basil family)

This is a large family of about 252 genera and 6700 species worldwide, with 39 genera and 350 species native to southern Africa, five genera and 16 species naturalised and 38 genera and 141 species cultivated in the region. There are many culinary and medicinal herbs in this family.

Lavandula sp.

Lentibulariaceae

Carnivorous plants, found in wet places. There are three genera and about 245 species (cosmopolitan), with two genera and 21 species native to southern Africa.

 

Linderniaceae

There are 13 genera and 195 species (pantropical to warm temperate, mainly New World), of which two genera and 13 species are native to southern Africa. These genera were previously placed in the Scrophulariaceae.

 

Martyniaceae

Five genera and 16 species (New World); two species of different genera (Ibicella and Proboscidea) are naturalised in southern Africa.

 

Oleaceae (olive family)

There are 24 genera and 615 species worldwide (cosmopolitan but mainly East Asia), with five genera and 25 species native to southern Africa. There are an additional nine exotic genera and 50 species cultivated in southern Africa.

Jasminum nudiflorum (Winter Jasmine)

Orobanchaceae

There are 99 genera and 2061 species (nearly worldwide), with 15 genera and 113 species native to southern Africa. There is an additional one genus and two species naturalised, and an additional two genera and two species cultivated in southern Africa. Members of the Orobanchaceae were previously included under the Scrophulariaceae.

 

Paulowniaceae

Contains a single genus, Paulownia, with six species, native to East Asia, especially China. One species, Paulownia tomentosa (Empress tree) is cultivated in southern Africa. Paulownia was previously placed in the Scrophulariaceae.

 

Pedaliaceae (sesame family)

There are about 13 genera and 70 species worldwide (mainly tropics and subtropics) of which eight genera and 32 species are native to southern Africa, mainly in semi-arid regions. An additional two species are cultivated in the region.

 

Phrymaceae

About 19 genera and 234 species (worldwide), with one genus (Mimulus) and one species native to southern Africa, another species naturalised and an additional five species that are cultivated in the region.

 

Plantaginaceae (plantains)

The Plantaginaceae used to be a relatively small family of about three genera and 255 species but recent studies have moved a large number of genera from the Scrophulariaceae into this family. It therefore now has about 90 genera and 1700 species, of which seven genera and 29 species are native to southern Africa and five genera and 24 species are naturalised. There are also an additional 15 genera and 53 species cultivated in the region.

 

Scrophulariaceae (snapdragon, foxglove family)

There are about 65 genera and 1700 species (cosmopolitan) of which 47 genera and 825 species are native to southern Africa. There are also an additional two genera and three species naturalised and an additional three genera and 23 species cultivated in this region. From recent work on this family and related families, a large number of genera have been moved to other families in the Lamiales (mainly Plantaginaceae, Orobanchaceae and to a lesser extent Stilbaceae).

Hebenstretia sp.

Stilbaceae

There are 12 genera and 27 species, mainly occurring in the fynbos of the Western Cape in South Africa but with some representatives distributed through Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene Islands and southern Arabia. From recent molecular studies, the genera Halleria, Charadrophila, Bowkeria, Anastrabe and Ixianthes have been moved to this family from the Scrophulariaceae and Nuxia has been moved from Loganiaceae to Buddlejaceae to its present home in the Stilbaceae.

Retzia capensis

Verbenaceae (teak, lantana family)

There are a total of 34 genera and 1175 species (worldwide), of which seven genera and 37 species native to southern Africa. An additional three genera and 12 species have become naturalised in the region, and an additional two genera and 14 species are cultivated in southern Africa. A number of genera have been moved from the Verbenaceae to the Lamiaceae

Lantana camara

Families not encountered in southern Africa: Byblidaceae, Carlemanniaceae, Mazaceae, Plocospermataceae, Schlegeliaceae, Tetrachondraceae, Thomandersiaceae


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