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Genus: Barleria

Life > eukaryotes > Archaeoplastida > Chloroplastida > Charophyta > Streptophytina > Plantae (land plants) > Tracheophyta (vascular plants) > Euphyllophyta > Lignophyta (woody plants) > Spermatophyta (seed plants) > Angiospermae (flowering plants) > Eudicotyledons > Core Eudicots > Asterids > Euasterid I > Order: Lamiales > Family: Acanthaceae

About 250 species, found worldwide but mainly in the tropics. Sixty-eight species are native to southern Africa, and two species are cultivated in the region.

Species native to southern Africa 

List from Plants of Southern Africa - an Online Checklist (SANBI), Flora of Zimbabwe and Flora of Mozambique.

Barleria affinis

Perennial shrub growing to 1.2 m high. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West), Botswana, Zimbabwe

See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria albo-pilosa

Perennial herb growing to 0.8 m high. Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia; Botswana

 

Barleria albostellata (Grey Barleria)

Grysbarleria [Afrikaans]

Perennial shrub growing to 2 m high. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (Limpopo), Zimbabwe. See Flora of Zimbabwe, Joffe (2001: 143).

 

Barleria argillicola

Perennial dwarf shrub / herb, growing to a height of 0.3 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > KwaZulu-Natal.

 

Barleria aromatica

Native to Zimbabwe. See Flora of Zimbabwe

 

Barleria bechuanensis

Perennial herb growing to 0.2 m high. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Northern Cape, Free State.

 

Barleria bolusii

Perennial herb growing to 0.2 m high.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Limpopo, North West, Gauteng.

 

Barleria bremekampii

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to a height of 1.5 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Limpopo, North West.

 

Barleria capitata

Recorded from Zimbabwe. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria crassa

Recorded from Zimbabwe. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria crossandriformis (Orange crossandra)

Perennial shrub or herb, growing to a height of 1.2 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West), Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Mozambique.

See Pooley (1998: 76).

See Flora of Zimbabwe.

Barleria cyanea

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to height of 1 m. Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia.

 

Barleria damarensis

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to height of 0.55 m. Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia.

 

Barleria dinteri

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to height of 1.35 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Mpumalanga, Limpopo, Gauteng; Swaziland; Botswana; Namibia.

 

Barleria dolomiticola

Perennial herb growing to height of 0.3 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Limpopo.

 

Barleria elegans (White Bushveld Barleria)

umhlalulwane [Zulu]

Perennial shrub or herb, growing to height of 1.8 m. See Pooley (1998: 198). Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Limpopo; Swaziland), Namibia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique.

See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria eylesii

Recorded from Zimbabwe. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria galpinii

Perennial s hrub or herb, growing to height of 1 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Mpumalanga, Limpopo; Namibia; Botswana.

 

Barleria greenii (Green's Barleria, Wild Bush Petunia)

Perennial shrub, growing to height of 1.8 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > KwaZulu-Natal. See Pooley (1998: 436); link: Barleria greenii (PlantzAfrica.com).

Barleria gueinzii

Perennial shrub or herb, growing to height of 1.2 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Limpopo; Swaziland, Mozambique.

See Pooley (1998: 488). 

Barleria hirta

Recorded from Zimbabwe and Mozambique. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria holubii

Perennial shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.6 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (Mpumalanga, Limpopo), Zimbabwe.

See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria irritans

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.35 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Northern Cape, Western Cape, Eastern Cape.

 

Barleria jasminiflora

Perennial herb growing to height of 0.2 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Eastern Cape.

 

Barleria jubata

Perennial dwarf shrub growing to height of 0.6 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia.

 

Barleria kaloxytona

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.45 m. Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia.

 

Barleria kirkii

Native to Zimbabwe, Mozambique. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria lanceolata

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to height of 0.8 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia.

 

Barleria lancifolia

Perennial shrub, dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 1.5 m. See Pooley (1998: 488).

Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (Northern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Gauteng), Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe.

See Flora of Zimbabwe.

Barleria lichtensteiniana

Perennial herb growing to height of 0.4 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Northern Cape; Namibia.

 

Barleria lugardii

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to a height of 0.7 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Limpopo; Botswana; Namibia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique.

 

Barleria mackenii

Perennial shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.75 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (Mpumalanga, Limpopo; Botswana; Namibia), Zimbabwe

 

Barleria macrostegia

Perennial herb growing to height of 0.5 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Northern Cape, Free State, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, North West, Limpopo; Botswana; Namibia, Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria matopensis

Perennial herb growing to height of 0.4 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (Limpopo), Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria media

Perennial herb growing to height of 0.1 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Northern Cape.

 

Barleria meeuseana

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to height of 0.9 m. Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia.

 

Barleria megalosiphon

Perennial herb growing to height of 0.15 m. Distribution in southern Africa: Botswana; Namibia.

 

Barleria merxmuelleri

Perennial dwarf shrub growing to height of 0.5 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia.

 

Barleria meyeriana

Perennial shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.9 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Limpopo; Swaziland.

See Pooley (1998: 488).

Barleria molensis

Recorded from Zimbabwe. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

Barleria monticola

Perennial herb growing to height of 0.45 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > KwaZulu-Natal, Free State. See Pooley (1998: 490).

Barleria natalensis

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.75 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > KwaZulu-Natal.

 

Barleria obtusa (Bush violet)

Perennial shrub, dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 1 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Gauteng; Swaziland.

Barleria obtusa

Barleria ovata

Perennial herb growing to a height of 0.8 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga; Swaziland.

 

Barleria oxyphylla

Perennial herb growing to height of 0.4 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Mpumalanga; Swaziland.

 

Barleria papillosa

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to height of 0.9 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Northern Cape; Namibia.

 

Barleria pretoriensis

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to height of 0.9 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Mpumalanga, Limpopo, Gauteng, North West; Botswana.

See van Wyk & Malan (1997: 32).

Barleria prionitis

[= Barleria ameliae, Barleria delagoensis, Barleria prionitoides]

Perennial plant, only slightly woody at the base (i.e. a suffrutex). Grows to a height of 0.6 m high. Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique. 

See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria pungens

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.45 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Western Cape, Eastern Cape.

 

Barleria randii

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.3 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (North West), Botswana, Zimbabwe. 

 

Barleria rehmannii

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.3 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Limpopo, Gauteng; Swaziland.

 

Barleria repens (Small Bush Violet)

Bosviooltjie, Kleinbosviooltjie [Afrikaans]

Perennial shrub, herb or climber, growing to height of 1.5 m. See Pooley (1998: 76); Joffe (2001: 145). Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), Mozambique.

Barleria rhodesiaca

Native to Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria rigida

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to a height of 0.8 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Northern Cape, Free State; Botswana; Namibia.

 

Barleria rogersii

Perennial dwarf shrub growing to height of 0.6 m.  Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Limpopo; Namibia.

 

Barleria rotundifolia (Spiny Yellow Barleria, Thorny Bush Violet, Yellow Barleria)

Geelbarleria [Afrikaans]

Perennial shrub or dwarf shrub, growing to a height of 2 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Limpopo, Mpumalanga. 

See Joffe (2001: 146).

Barleria saxatilis

Perennial shrub, dwarf shrub or herb, growing to a height of 1.5 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Limpopo; Swaziland.

See Pooley (1998: 490).

Barleria scindens

Native to Zimbabwe. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria senensis

Perennial shrub, dwarf shrub or herb, growing to a height of 1.5 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa (Mpumalanga, Limpopo; Botswana), Namibia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique. See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria solitaria

Perennial dwarf shrub growing to height of 0.5 m. Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia.

 

Barleria spinulosa

Perennial shrub, dwarf shrub or herb, growing to a height of 1 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa, Zimbabwe.

See Flora of Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria stimulans

Skerpioenbos [Afrikaans]

See Shearing & van Heerden (1994: 140).

Barleria taitensis

Recorded from Zimbabwe.

 

Barleria transvaalensis

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.5 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Mpumalanga, Limpopo.

 

Barleria ukamensis

Native to Mozambique but not sure whether it occurs in southern Mozambique, which is the part of this country that is included in southern Africa as defined here.

 

Barleria violacea

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.2 m. Distribution in southern Africa: Namibia.

 

Barleria virgula

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.4 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > Mpumalanga, Limpopo, Gauteng; Botswana.

 

Barleria wilmsiana

Perennial dwarf shrub or herb, growing to height of 0.6 m. Distribution in southern Africa: South Africa > KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga.

See Pooley (1998: 490).

Other species, cultivated in southern Africa 

List from Glen (2002).

Barleria involucrata

Native to India.

 

Barleria lupulina

Native from India to Mauritius.

 

Publications

  • Balkwill, M.-J. & Balkwill, K. 1994. Systematic studies in the Acanthaceae: Barleria: the problem of subdivision. In: J.H. Seyani & A.C. Chikuni (eds), Proceedings of the 13th Plenary Meeting of AETFAT, Vol. 2: 12571267.
  • Balkwill, M.-J. & Balkwill, K. 1996. Problems with generic delimitation and subdivision in a large genus, Barleria L. (Acanthaceae). In: The biodiversity of African plants. Proceedings of the 14th AETFAT Congress. Kluwer Academic Publications, Dordrecht.
  • Balkwill, M.-J. & Balkwill, K. 1997. Delimitation and infrageneric classification of Barleria (Acanthaceae). Kew Bulletin 52: 139.
  • Balkwill, M.-J. & Balkwill, K. 1998. A preliminary analysis of distribution patterns in a large pantropical genus, Barleria (Acanthaceae). Journal of Biogeography 25: 95110.
  • Balkwill, M.-J., Balkwill, K. & Vincent, P.L.D. 1990. Systematic studies in the Acanthaceae: a new species of Barleria from Natal. South African Journal of Botany 56: 571576.
  • Balkwill, M.-J., Stalmans, M.C. & Balkwill, K. 1992. Systematic studies in the Acanthaceae: a new species of Barleria from the northeastern Transvaal, with some notes on its ecology. South African Journal of Botany 58: 286291.
  • Joffe, P. 2001. Creative Gardening with Indigenous Plants. A South African Guide. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
  • Obermeyer, A.A. 1933. A revision of the South African species of Barleria. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 15,2: 123-180.
  • Pooley, E. 1998. A Field Guide to Wild Flowers KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Region. Natal Flora Publications Trust, Durban.
  • Shearing, D. & van Heerden, K. 1994. Karoo. South African Wild Flower Guide 6. Botanical Society of Southern Africa, Kirstenbosch.
  • van Wyk, B. & Malan, S. 1997. Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of the Highveld. 2nd edition. Struik Publishers, Cape Town.
  • Welman, W.G. 2003. Acanthaceae. In Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds), Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 92-106. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. 
  


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