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Insecta (insects)

[= Ectognatha]

Life > Eukaryotes > Opisthokonta > Metazoa (animals) > Bilateria > Ecdysozoa > Panarthropoda > Tritocerebra > Arthopoda > Mandibulata > Atelocerata > Panhexapoda > Hexapoda

Insects are distinguished from other members of the phylum Arthropoda by having six legs, not eight (e.g. spiders) or more (e.g. crustaceans, millipedes and centipedes).  They are the most diverse group of organisms on earth and have a huge impact on our daily lives through the food they supply (e.g. honey from honeybees), the food they destroy (agricultural and stored product pests), the people they kill through spreading diseases, and the integral part they play in the ecology of terrestrial ecosystems.

Classification

Based mainly on Tree of Life. A '#' before the name indicates an extinct fossil taxon.

Archaeognatha

 

Dicondyla

 
 

Zygentoma (fishmoths)

 

Pterygota

 
   

Ephemeroptera (mayflies)

 

   

Metapterygota

 
     

# Paleodictyoptera

 
     

# Geroptera

 
     

Holodonata

 
       

# Protodonata

 
       

Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)

 

     

Neoptera (bugs, beetles, wasps, moths, flies, etc.)

 
       

# Paolidae (Protoptera)

 
       

Polyneoptera

 
         

"# Protorthoptera"  (stem group, polyphyletic)

 
         

Anartioptera

 
           

Dermaptera (earwigs)

 

           

Grylloblattodea (ice bugs, rock crawlers)

 

 
           

Mantophasmatodea

 

           

Plecopterida

 
               

Plecoptera (stoneflies)

 

               

Embiidina (web-spinners)

 

               

Zoraptera

 

 
           

Orthopterida

 

 
             

Phasmida (stick and leaf insects)

 

             

# Caloneurodea

 

 
             

# Titanoptera

 

 
             

Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, etc.)

 

         

Dictyoptera (cockroaches, mantises and termites)

 

       

Eumetabola

 
         

Paraneoptera (bugs, thrips, lice)

 
           

Psocodea (lice and booklice)

There used to be two separate orders, the Psocoptera (booklice, barklice) and the Phthiraptera (lice). However it has been found from molecular studies that lice in fact evolved from within the Psocoptera. The Psocodea includes both groups but for convenience we have still

 
           

Condylognatha

 
               

Thysanoptera (thrips)

               

Hemiptera (bugs, cicadas, whiteflies, aphids, etc.)

         

Holometabola (=Endopterygota) (beetles, wasps, moths, flies, etc.)

 
           

Coleoptera (beetles)

           

Neuropterida

 
             

Raphidioptera (snakeflies)

 
             

Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies)

             

Neuroptera (lacewings, antlions, owlflies, etc.)

           

Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees)

           

Panorpida

 
             

Antliophora

 
               

Mecoptera (scorpionflies, hangingflies and fleas)

 
               

Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites)

 
               

Diptera (flies)

             

Amphiesmenoptera

 
               

Trichoptera (caddisflies)

               

Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

           

Uncertain placement

 
             

# Miomoptera

 
             

# Glosselytrodea

 

 


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