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The Kingdom of Fungi

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(following Cavalier-Smith, 1998)

  • Subkingdom: Eomycota
    • Phylum: Archemycota
      • Class: Chytridiomycetes
        • Order: Chytridiales
        • Order: Monoblepharidales
        • Order: Spizellomycetales
        • Order: Neocallimastigales
      • Class: Enteromycetes (parasites in arthropod guts)
        • Order: Eccrinales
        • Order: Amoebidiales
      • Class: Allomycetes
        • Order: Blastocladiales
        • Order: Coelomomycetales
      • Class: Bolomycetes. Sole genus: Basidiobolus. Saprotrophs.
      • Class: Glomomycetes. Form vesicular arbuscular endomycorhizas with vascular plants.
        • Order: Glomales
        • Order: Endogonales
      • Class: Zygomycetes. Mainly saprotrophs of animals.
        • Order: Mucorales
        • Order: Mortierellales
        • Order: Dimargaritales
        • Order: Kickxellales
        • Order: Cuninghamellales
      • Class: Zoomycetes. Parasites of animals or protozoa.
        • Order: Entomophorales. Endoparasites of invertebrates or protozoa.
        • Order: Zoopagales. Endoparasites of invertebrates or protozoa.
        • Order: Harpellales. Endocommensals within the gut of mandibulate arthropods.
        • Order: Asellariales. Endocommensals within the gut of mandibulate arthropods.
        • Order: Laboulbeniales (e.g. Laboulbenia). Ectoparasites of mandibulate arthropods.
        • Order: Pyxidiophorales. Ectoparasites of mandibulate arthropods.
    • Phylum: Microsporidia. Obligate intracellular parasites of animals or rarely protozoa. For instance, Nosema species cause the death of caterpillars and are a problem in the silkworm industry. Microsporidia have only recently been  placed in the Fungi, based on molecular evidence.
      • Class: Minisporea (e.g. Chytridiopsis, Buxtehudia, Hessea)
      • Class: Microsporea (e.g. Pleistophora, Amblyospora, Glugea, Encephalitozoon, Nosema, Enterocytozoon, Spraguea, Caudospora). Single-celled parasites within cells of animals. For instance, Nosema species cause the death of caterpillars and are a problem in the silkworm industry. 
  • Subkingdom: Neomycota
    • Phylum: Ascomycota
      • Class: Taphrinomycetes. e.g. Taphrina, Schizosaccharomyces, Protomyces, Pneumocystis)
      • Class: Geomycetes. Sole genus Geosiphon. Contain intracellular cyanobacterial endosymbionts belonging to the genus Nostoc.
      • Class: Endomycetes. e.g. Dipodascopsis, Saccharomyces, Candida, Endomyces
      • Class: Discomycetes. Includes lichen fungi genera such as Calicium, Coniocybe, Usnea, Lecanora, Peltigera, Xanthoria; also Peziza, Tuber, Morchella, Rhytisma.
      • Class: Pyrenomycetes. e.g. Verrucaria (pyrenocarpous lichen fungi), Neurospora, Sordaria, Claviceps, Nectria, Xylaria, Daldinia)
      • Class: Loculomycetes. e.g. lichen fungi Arthonia and Lecanactis; also Dothidea, Pleospora, Venturia.
      • Class: Plectomycetes. e.g. Penecillium, Aspergillus (e.g. Aspergillus flavus), Eurotium, Erysiphe.
    • Phylum: Basidiomycota
      • Class: Septomycetes
        • Order: Erythrobasidiales
        • Order: Sporidiales
        • Order: Uredinales (rusts)
        • Order: Septobasidiales
      • Class: Ustomycetes
        • Order: Ustilaginales
        • Order: Tilletiales
      • Class: Gelimycetes (jelly fungi and related yeasts)
        • Order: Tremellales
        • Order: Dacrymycetales
        • Order: Auriculariales
      • Class: Homobasidiomycetes (e.g. Clavaria, Tulasnella, Fomes, Agaricus, Coprinus, Boletus, Lycoperdon, Cyathus)
  • Doctorfungus. An excellent site, aiming to cover all aspects of fungi but currently mainly on medically important fungi.

  • WWW Virtual Library: Mycology. Provides links to various sites on fungi.

  • SYSTEMATIC BOTANY and MYCOLOGY LABORATORY, Agricultural Research Service United States Department of Agriculture Beltsville, Maryland USA. Very much a scientific site - excellent for retrieving information on particular species of fungi that are of agricultural importance. Go to their databases and find out hosts, nomenclature and literature on particular species. 

  • LichenLand: Fun with Lichens. from Oregon State University. Discover the World of Lichens Learn how to Identify these Mysterious Organisms.


  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203-266.

  • Gorter, G.J.M.A. 1977. [Index of plant pathogens and the diseases they cause in cultivated plants in South Africa]. Pl. Protect. Res. Inst. Sci. Bull. 392:1-177.


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