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# Class: Acanthodii

Life > Eukaryotes > Opisthokonta > Metazoa (animals) > Bilateria > Deuterostomia > Chordata > Craniata > Vertebrata (vertebrates)  > Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) > Teleostomi (teleost fish)

Originated in the Silurian and went extinct in the Permian. Fossil remains of acanthodians (spines, scale impressions, skull remnants, rarely articulated skeletons) have been recorded from Devonian and Carboniferous shallow marine, estuarine and lake deposits in South Africa.


  • Evans, F.J., 1999. Palaeobiology of Early Carboniferous lacustrine biota of the Waaipoort Formation (Witteberg Group). South Africa. Palæontol. Afr. 35, 1–6.

  • Jubb, R.A., Gardiner, B.G., 1975. A preliminary catalogue of identifiable fossil fish material from southern Africa. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 67 (11), 381–440.


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