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Tubulinea (naked amoebae - part)

Life > Eukaryotes > Amoebozoa

Members of the Tubilinea exist only in water although this can include the water film round soil particles, and in fact they can be very abundant in soil. The soil fauna is evidently just a subset of what is found in freshwater. Soil amoebae can feed on bacteria, diatoms, nematodes, particles of organic matter, fungi and protozoa. They have evidently been recognised as being important in the control of bacterial populations.

The Tubulinea used to be included in the "Gymnamoebae" otherwise called "naked amoebae". Gymnamoebae is not a monophyletic group and hence is no longer used in classifications although it is used as a "functional group" for referring to unicellular organisms with this type of morphology. 


I have had difficulty in tracking down records of Tubulinea genera in southern Africa. This is largely because very little research has been conducted on these genera in the region. All taxa listed in Adl et al. (2005) are provided below even though many of them have probably not been recorded from southern Africa although they might be out there somewhere still to be discovered. 


Mainly inhabit freshwater but some are inhabit soil. Nathan and James (1972) record Amoeba from bottom mud of freshwater bodies around Johannesburg. Genera:  (Amoeba, Chaos, Polychaos, Deuteramoeba, Trichamoeba, Parachaos, Hydramoeba) and Hartmannellidae (Saccamoeba, Cashia, Glaeseria, Hartmanella, Nolandella). The Hartmannellidae was formerly classified in the Rhizopoda (amastigote amoebas), which has now been disbanded because it is polyphyletic.



Genera worldwide include: Flabellula, Gephyramoeba, Leptomyxa, Paraflabellula, Rhizamoeba.


Testacealobosia (testate amoebae - part)

Enclosed in shell (test) with usually one opening.



Genera worldwide include: Arcella, Centropyxis, Difflugia. Arcella is frequently encountered in organically polluted waters and in the bottom of ponds where there is rotted plant material at low oxygen concentrations.


Incertae sedis Testacealobosia

Includes genus Trichosphaerium


Incertae sedis Tubulinea

Includes genus Echinamoeba



  • Adl, S.M., Simpson, A.G., Farmer, M.A., Andersen, R.A., Anderson, O.R., Barta, J.R., Bowser, S.S., Brugerolle, G., Fensome, R.A., Fredericq, S., James, T.Y., Karpov, S., Kugrens, P., Krug, J., Lane, C.E., Lewis, L.A., Lodge, J., Lynn, D.H., Mann, D.G., McCourt, R.M., Mendoza, L., Moestrup, ., Mozley-Standridge, S.E., Nerad, T.A., Shearer, C.A., Smirnov, A.V., Spiegel, F.W. and Taylor, M.F.J.R. 2005. The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. Eukaryote Microbiology 52(5): 399-451.
  • Nathan, J.M. and James, V.G. 1972. The role of Protozoa in the nutrition of tadpoles. Copeia 1972 (4): 669-679.


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