Hemiptera (bugs, scale insects)
> Eukaryotes >
Metazoa (animals) > Bilateria > Ecdysozoa
> Panarthropoda > Tritocerebra > Phylum:
Arthopoda > Mandibulata >
Atelocerata > Panhexapoda >
> Insecta (insects) > Dicondyla > Pterygota >
Metapterygota > Neoptera > Eumetabola > Paraneoptera > Condylognatha
Bugs have sucking mouthparts whereas groups that can have a similar appearance, such as
the beetles, have biting mouthparts. Most bugs are plant suckers making them important
agricultural and garden pests, although there are a number of groups, such as the assassin
bugs (Reduviidae), that are predatory.
Note: The group known as the Homoptera
constitutes the suborders Sternorryncha and Auchenorrhyncha but it is
paraphyletic and has therefore been excluded from this classification which is
based on Carver et al. (1991).
Carver, M., Gross, G.F. & Woodward, T.E.
1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects, etc.).
In: The Insects of Australia - a Textbook for Students and Research
Workers Volume 1. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.