Cinnyris afer (Greater
[= Nectarinia afra]
Groot-rooibandsuikerbekkie [Afrikaans]; Ingcungcu (generic
term for sunbird) [Xhosa]; iNcuncu (also applied to Southern double-collared
sunbird), iNcwincwi [Zulu]; Ntsotsotso, Xidyamhangani, Rithweethwee [Tsonga];
Grote kraaghoningzuiger [Dutch]; Souimanga à plastron rouge [French]; Großer
halsband-nektarvogel [German]; Beija-flor-de-banda-larga [Portuguese]
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vertebrates) > Teleostomi (teleost fish) > Osteichthyes (bony fish) > Class:
fish) > Stegocephalia (terrestrial
vertebrates) > Tetrapoda
(four-legged vertebrates) > Reptiliomorpha > Amniota >
Reptilia (reptiles) >
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Coelurosauria > Maniraptora > Aves
Order: Passeriformes > Family: Nectariniidae
Distribution and habitat
Endemic to South Africa and Swaziland, occurring in a band
from the Limpopo Province through Mpumalanga and Swaziland to KwaZulu-Natal,
down the coast to the Western and Eastern Cape. It generally prefers edges of
Afromontane, coastal and dune forest, dry valley bushveld, montane tall
shrublands, woodland along water courses in arid regions, Acacia savanna,
parks and gardens.
Distribution of Greater double-collared sunbird in southern Africa,
based on statistical smoothing of the records from first SA Bird Atlas
Animal Demography unit, University of
Cape Town; smoothing by Birgit Erni and Francesca Little). Colours range
from dark blue (most common) through to yellow (least common).
See here for the latest distribution
from the SABAP2.
Predators and parasites
It has been recorded as prey of Felis catus
It has been recorded as host of the
It eats nectar supplemented with arthropods and fruit,
probing flowers with its bill to obtain nectar, sometimes sucking juice out of
fruit. It also hawks insects aerially and gleans prey from leaves and twigs,
often joining mixed species aggregations at large sources of nectar. The
following food items have been recorded in its diet:
- Cotyledon (pig's ears)
- Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)
- Gasteria (bontaalwyns)
- Pyrostegia venusta (Golden shower
- Ananas (cultivated pineapples)
- juice of fruit
- The nest is built solely by the female in about 10-24 days, consisting of
a an oval-shaped structure built of a variety of materials, such as dry
grass, bark shreds, wool, cottony material, feathers, fur, leaves, lichen,
rootlets, twiglets and string bound together with spider web. The entrance
hole is positioned on the side, protected by a hood of grass (especially
Panicum and Eragrostis) sticking out of the side of the nest. It
usually decorates the exterior with large leaves, sloughed snake skin, paper
and lichen, lining the inside with feathers and hair. It is typically placed
2-6 metres above ground in a tree with dense foliage, such as guarris (Euclea),
boer-beans (Schotia) and Acacia.
- Egg-laying season is almost year-round, peaking from July-November.
- It lays 1-2, usually 2 eggs, which are incubated solely by the female
for about 15-16 days.
- The chicks are fed by both parents, leaving the nest after about 15-16
days and becoming independent about 10 days later.
Hockey PAR, Dean WRJ and Ryan PG 2005. Roberts
- Birds of southern Africa, VIIth ed. The Trustees of the John Voelcker
Bird Book Fund, Cape Town.